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AASP Statement on Transgender and Intersex Athlete Inclusion


Throughout history, sport has been a vehicle for human expression and the championing of human rights. It has been a domain for marginalized individuals and groups to strive for social equality and to speak out against the tyrannies of injustice. Despite these historical moments of anti-oppression, sport remains a highly contested site for the free and open expression of transgender and intersex athletic identities. Transgender (e.g., Chris Mosier, Lia Thomas, Schuyler Bailar, CeCe Telfer) and intersex athletes (e.g., Dutee Chand, Caster Semenya, Annet Negesa) have demonstrated an unerring commitment to their sport and in many cases have faced discrimination from fans, officials, athletes, administrators, coaches, and other sport stakeholders.

The mission of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) is to enhance athletic performance while maintaining overall athlete health and well-being. AASP is dedicated to the mental health and well-being of transgender and intersex athletes and stands in solidarity with them. We also stand in solidarity with other organizations that advocate for the full participation of transgender and intersex athletes at all levels of sport. In accordance with the Association’s Position Statement on Human Diversity, AASP stands fully committed to diversity, equity, inclusion, belonging, and social justice in sport for all individuals regardless of social identity. As an organization, we seek to actively uplift and extol the achievements of transgender and intersex athletes through our teaching, research, advocacy, and professional practices.

Resources to Support Transgender and Intersex Athletes

Handbooks and Documents

Organizations and Online Resources

Articles, Book Chapters, and Books

  • Atteberry-Ash, B., & Woodford, M. R. (2018). Support for Policy Protecting LGBT Student Athletes among Heterosexual Students Participating in Club and Intercollegiate Sports. Sexuality Research & Social Policy; Berkeley, 15(2), 151–162.
  • Balsam, K. F., Beadnell, B., & Molina, Y. (2013). The Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire: Measuring Minority Stress Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 46(1), 3–25.
  • Bianchi, A. (2017). Transgender women in sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 44(2), 229–242.
  • Bianchi, A. (2019). Something’s Got to Give: Reconsidering the Justification for a Gender Divide in Sport. Philosophies, 4(2), 23.
  • Burdge, B. J. (2007). Bending Gender, Ending Gender: Theoretical Foundations for Social Work Practice with the Transgender Community. Social Work, 52(3), 243–250.
  • Buzuvis, E. E. (2011). Transgender Student-Athletes and Sex-Segregated Sport: Developing Policies of Inclusion for Intercollegiate and Interscholastic Athletics. Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law, 21, 1.
  • Buzuvis, E. E. (2016). As Who They Really Are: Expanding Opportunities for Transgender Athletes to Participate in Youth and Scholastic Sports Symposium: Playing with Pride: LGBT Inclusion in Sports. Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice, 2, 341–384.
  • Cunningham, G. B., Buzuvis, E., & Mosier, C. (2018). Inclusive Spaces and Locker Rooms for Transgender Athletes. Kinesiology Review, 7(4), 365–374.
  • Cunningham, G. B., Isard, R., & Melton, E. N. (2021). Transgender Inclusion in Sport. Kinesiology Review, 11(1), 64–70.
  • Cunningham, G. B., & Pickett, A. C. (2018). Trans prejudice in sport: Differences from LGB prejudice, the influence of gender, and changes over time. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 78(3–4), 220–227.
  • Gray, A., Crandall, R. E., & Tongsri, J. (2018). Transgender Student-Athletes and Their Inclusion in Intercollegiate Athletics. New Directions for Student Services, 2018(163), 43–53.
  • Griffin, P., & Carroll, H. (2010). On The Team: Equal Opportunities for Transgender Student Athletes. National Center for Lesbian Rights & Women’s Sports Foundation.
  • Griffin, P., & Carroll, H. (2011). NCAA Inclusion of Transgender Student-Athletes. NCAA Office of Inclusion.
  • Griffin, P., Perrotti, J., Priest, L., & Muska, M. (2002). It Takes a Team! Making Sports Safe for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Athletes and Coaches. An Education Kit for Athletes, Coaches, and Athletic Directors.
  • Hargie, O. D., Mitchell, D. H., & Somerville, I. J. (2017). ‘People have a knack of making you feel excluded if they catch on to your difference:’ Transgender experiences of exclusion in sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 52(2), 223–239.
  • Jones, B. A., Arcelus, J., Bouman, W. P., & Haycraft, E. (2017). Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies. Sports Medicine, 47(4), 701–716.
  • Jones, B. A., Arcelus, J., Bouman, W. P., & Haycraft, E. (2017b). Barriers and facilitators of physical activity and sport participation among young transgender adults who are medically transitioning. International Journal of Transgenderism, 18(2), 227–238.
  • Klein, A., Paule-Koba, A. L., & Krane, V. (2019). The journey of transitioning: Being a trans male athlete in college sport. Sport Management Review (Elsevier Science), 22(5), 626–639.
  • Krane, V. (2018). Sex, Gender, and Sexuality in Sport: Queer Inquiries. Routledge.
  • Krane, V., & Barak, K. S. (2012). Current Events and Teachable Moments: Creating Dialog About Transgender and Intersex Athletes. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 83(4), 38–43.
  • Krane, V., & Kaus, R. J. (2014). Gendered Social Dynamics in Sport. In Group Dynamics in Exercise and Sport Psychology (2nd ed.). Routledge.
  • Krane, V., & Waldron, J. J. (2020). A renewed call to queer sport psychology. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 0(0), 1–22.
  • Lucas-Carr, C. B., & Krane, V. (2011). What Is the T in LGBT? Supporting Transgender Athletes Through Sport Psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 25(4), 532–548.
  • Reeser, J. C. (2005). Gender identity and sport: Is the playing field level? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(10), 695–699.
  • Sartore-Baldwin, M. (2012). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Athletes in Sport. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 6(1), 141–152.
  • Sinisi, J. V. (2012). Gender Non-Conformity as a Foundation for Sex Discrimination: Why Title IX May Be an Appropriate Remedy for the NCAA’s Transgender Student-Athletes. Villanova Sports & Entertainment Law Journal, 19, 343.
  • Skinner-Thompson, S., & Turner, I. M. (2013). Title IX’s Protections for Transgender Student Athletes. Wisconsin Journal of Law, Gender and Society, 28, 271.
  • Smith, T. R. (2017). Not Throwing in the Towel: Challenging Exclusive Interscholastic Transgender Athletic Policies under Title IX. Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal, 24, 309.
  • Stewart, L., Oates, J., & O’Halloran, P. (2020). “My Voice Is My Identity:” The Role of Voice for Trans Women’s Participation in Sport. Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation, 34(1), 78–87.
  • Tanimoto, C., & Miwa, K. (2021). Factors influencing acceptance of transgender athletes. Sport Management Review, 24(3), 452–474.


  • Queer in the Kingdom (2014)
  • Matthew Shepard Is a Friend of Mine (2015)
  • The Trans List (2016)
  • Gender Revolution (2017)
  • Disclosure: Trans Lives on Screen (2020)
  • TRANSHOOD HBO Original (2020)

Notable Figures

  • Harrison Browne
  • Chase Strangio
  • Chris Mosier
  • Mack Beggs
  • Indya Moore
  • Lia Thomas
  • Laverne Cox
  • Layshia Clarendon
  • Chella Man
  • CeCe Telfer
  • Kayla Ward
  • Pat Manuel
  • Veronica Ivy
  • Jazz Jennings
  • Dutee Chand
  • Lillian Lennon
  • Caster Semenya
  • Nikita Dragun
  • Annet Negesa
  • Eli Erlick
  • Devin Michael Lowe
  • Kye Allums
  • Vivek Shraya
  • Quinn
  • Zoey Luna
  • Laurel Hubbard
  • Schuyler Bailar
  • Jake Graf 
  • Rachel McKinnon

Organizations to Follow